Tewkesbury Races

by Derek Benson
Most of what follows is from an article published in THS Bulletin 14 [2005] 'The Tewkesbury Races' by Derek Benson. The Bulletin article was shortlisted for the country Jerrard Award. The author has added further information to this version of the article.

Early Years

1835 map showing race course
1835 map showing race courseClick Image
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Every year, in the month of March, Cheltenham is host to The National Hunt Festival, a premier horse racing meeting that attracts over 50,000 spectators a day. To the regret of some Tewkesburians, and to the great relief of others, the town of Tewkesbury might have been the venue for this event had it not been for the frequent flooding that occurs around the town and the opposition to racing of some persons in positions of authority. Nevertheless, Tewkesbury was an important centre of horseracing in the past; the sport taking place on the Severn Ham.

The Ham is ancient meadow land situated to the west of Tewkesbury between the Mill Avon and Severn River. A right to the proceeds from the second mowing of the meadow on the Ham, known as the ‘aftermath’, was historically held by resident freemen of Tewkesbury and the occupiers of houses fronting the three principal streets of the town: High Street, Church Street and Barton Street. In 1808, an Act of Parliament was passed whereby The Trustees of the Tewkesbury Commons were appointed to be responsible for the division of the proceeds of the aftermath among those entitled under these rights,[1] a responsibility they still hold today. These trustees were also to play a part in the eventual demise of racing in Tewkesbury.

Some form of horseracing had no doubt taken place in England for many years, but the earliest record of organised racing is at York in 1530. Horseracing in its early days was a more informal affair compared to modern day racing. The meetings were regional or county gatherings; the only national meeting was at Newmarket, patronised by King Charles II.

Racecourses were not permanent establishments, and the courses that the horses followed were not necessarily well defined. All of the races were flat races; jump racing did not take place until the mid-19th century. Prizes were often awarded after the running of a number of heats. Two horse ‘matches’ were also quite common and many of the horses competed in more than one race. Many of the spectators would be on horseback themselves, galloping up the course behind the race and presenting what must have been a fairly chaotic spectacle.

As well as Tewkesbury, there are records of racing in Gloucestershire in the 18th century at Gloucester Meads, Tetbury and Minchinhampton – all long before the first event at Cheltenham in 1815. The earliest record that we have of the Ham being used for horseracing is from 1721. In that year the Prince of Wales (later King George II) gave a gold cup worth 50 guineas[2] that was contested over Tewkesbury Ham on 2 September and won by a horse belonging to John Bridges.[3]  

The Tewkesbury Register in 1890 recalled this event;[4]  pointing out that racing on the Ham was surely well established by 1721 to occasion the Prince of Wales presenting a cup (an act he repeated in the following year). The article also quotes from a piece that appeared in the Weekly Worcester Journal in 1737. (The mention of Subscribers (members) in this article again indicates a well-established meeting.)

Tewkesbury Races:- On Thursday the first day of September, next, will be run for on Tewkesbury Ham, in the County of Gloucester, a Purse of Twenty Guineas … To be shewn and enter'd at the Swan in Tewkesbury the Thursday before … a Subscriber to pay Half a Guinea, and all others One Guinea and half, or double Entrance at the Post … And on Friday, the second Day of September, will be run for a Purse of Ten Guineas, by Galloways … The Horses to be kept from the Day of Entrance to the Day of Running, in some publick Stable.[5]

Growth & Society

1795 races advert
1795 races advertClick Image
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By the end of the 18th century things were more organised. A handbill advertising 'Tewkesbury Races', to be held over two days in August 1795, shows that handicap systems were in use based on age and gender of the horses as well as their previous form. Sweepstakes carried an entry fee of ten guineas (£10.50), a not inconsiderable sum in those days.[6] Samuel Ricketts was Clerk of the Course, to whom names of the horses and subscriptions were to be passed. As was usual, in conjunction with the races, a meal at a fixed price and time known as an ‘ordinary’ was arranged for each day: at the Swan Inn on the first day and at the Hop Pole on the second. Public breakfasts and balls in the evenings were also advertised.[7] It is clear that the races were an important event for the town and no doubt very good for trade. This is illustrated in 1795 by the 'town of Tewkesbury' adding to the prize money of one race 'a fox’s head, value ten guineas'. 

The Gloucester Journal certainly thought this meeting a great success describing it in part as follows: "The brilliancy of the atmosphere; the aggregate female beauty of this ancient borough and environs (almost proverbial) with the accidental display from Cheltenham; rendered, the surrounding picturesque scene truly compleate [sic]." [8]  

The article goes on to list the triumphs of Mr. Ram’s Hearty Cock, Capt. Snell’s Jaynetta, William Colston’s Sarah and Lord Donnegal’s For Andrews. It also alludes to critics of the races “… the unwearied attempts of a few individuals to put a lasting period to the Races at Tewkesbury.” Such opposition was to continue to surround the races in the future.

The London Times in 1805 reported on the races held at Tewkesbury in September of that year and gives some idea of the standing of the event: 

These races were attended by a great deal of fashionable company from Cheltenham, and the surrounding villas, with which this beautiful part of Gloucestershire and the borders of Worcestershire abounds. There was most excellent sport, and everything went off with great eclat. These races bid fair to be the first in this part of the country, which the well known liberality of the Steward, Richard Cresswell, Esq. will always ensure. [9]     

The rich upper classes were certainly well represented at the Tewkesbury Races. Mary Yorke of Forthampton Court wrote many letters in the late 1700’s and early 1800’s and she mentioned the races several times. She often had guests to stay who attended the races and the accompanying balls.

Bennett tells us that racing at Tewkesbury was discontinued between 1813 and 1824, then resumed in 1825 and took place regularly, except for 1829 due to flooding during the autumn.[10] The races appear to have been discontinued again during the 1830’s. They again resumed on 15 October 1841, formally entitled The Tewkesbury and Gloucestershire Races.[11]

A handbill advertising the 1843 meeting shows that at least one race was over hurdles. Entries and stakes were to be made to the Secretary at the Sun Inn. The race ordinary was arranged for Tuesday 18 July at the Swan Hotel and, for the Wednesday, at the Cross-Keys Hotel. A ball was to be held at the Town Hall, gentleman’s tickets 10/-, ladies 7/6d. (refreshments included). Admission of carriages and stage-coaches to the course cost 4/-, flys, phaetons and gigs 2/6d, saddle horses 2/-, jockeys to pay 2/6d. for weighing.[12]

Bennett gives a full account of this 1843 Tewkesbury meeting,

… on the 18th and 19th of July, on the Tewkesbury course, which is beautifully situated on the banks of the Severn, and is thought by many sporting men to be one of the best flat pieces of racing ground in the kingdom. On the morning of the 18th, the weather, which had been remarkably fine for some time before, looked ominous for a change; as the day advanced the clouds grew darker; towards noon it rained in torrents, and continued with but little intermission throughout the two days. Still, despite the ungenial weather, the attendance was numerous and respectable. An immense number of persons from Cheltenham were present; this was occasioned by the facilities afforded by the Railway Company, who had special trains, carrying any number of passengers, for a shilling each way; and it was calculated that at least two thousand persons availed themselves of this quick and cheap mode of transit. The Ham presented a bustling and animated scene: there was the ‘Ascot Grand Stand,’ (belonging to Mr. Barnard, of Epsom, and which had been conveyed hither by rail for the occasion,) on one side, and the lesser stand of the judge, (Mr. Clarke, of Newmarket,) on the other; a line of nearly twenty shuttling booths, each holding out its tempting sign, was ranged on each side of the grand stand, and an extended line of carriages, of all descriptions, was drawn up to the ropes on the opposite side; there was also a roomy temporary theatre, with numerous other exhibitions; and two roulette tables were placed near the grand stand, where you might play for ‘any sum from one shilling to fifty pounds.’ There was also a goodly show of ‘pea and thimble’ men, on the first morning, but as full half a score of their tables were speedily demolished, and the owners thereof somewhat rudely treated, the others soon disappeared.[13]  

A number of illustrious personages presided at the meeting. The stewards were the Duke of Beaufort, Viscount Maidstone and William Dowdeswell Esq. M.P. However, Sir William Codrington, Bart. officiated for the Duke of Beaufort, who was unavoidably absent. Mr. Charles Halford of Tewkesbury was Secretary, Mr. Clarke of Newmarket was Judge and the Clerk of the Course was Mr. Nathaniel Chandler jun. of Tewkesbury.

In 1844 Bennett reports that the weather was very hot, and that the condition of the ground on the course was subsequently very firm going, with many of the races run in a canter until the final stages. He mentions that Barnard’s ‘grandstand’ was brought from Epsom for the event and that it was “well filled with respectable company: underneath it were placed commodious tables, amply furnished with tempting refreshments”.

In 1925 an obituary of a Mrs. Sarah Fletcher who died aged 102 was published in the Bushley and Longdon Almanac. It states that she remembered the races well; she had said that the approach to the racecourse was by Quay Lane and that a large grandstand was erected in the centre of the Ham with the course fenced by stakes and ropes, and that the officials wore red coats and white breeches. She had stated that anyone could go on the Ham free of charge to view the racing. She had also mentioned that it was quite a sight to see the thousands who came from all parts to attend.[14] 

Crime & Accidents

As well as attracting royalty and other prominent members of society the races were also frequented by less respectable elements. The London Times in 1793 gives an insight into this more disreputable side of racing:

Tewkesbury September 2.
All the Ton [sic] [15]  of Cheltenham were at our races, where the Company was extremely numerous ….. Black-legs [16]  in abundance were on the course; and if we may judge from the numerous losses of tankards, silver cups, saddle bags, &c. &c. which were stole from the inns, many depredators of all descriptions attended the races.[17]  

In 1805 Mr. Thomas Perkins, a farmer of Eldersfield, spent a day at the races. He then visited a former mistress named Ann Halsey at Corse Lawn where he fell into a drunken sleep. Then Halsey, thought to be in a jealous rage, took a razor and, as the Gloucester Journal put it, “lacerated him in a most dreadful manner… more distressing than can with delicacy be described”[18]   Halsey was later acquitted of ‘wounding a man’ at Worcester Assizes.[19]  Six years later, Perkins went on to marry (at the age of sixty-five), twenty-four-year-old Ann Oakey.[20] 

In 1843 two thieves were arrested on the Ham on the first race day, one for picking pockets and the other for stealing shoes. They were tried next day and sentenced: the former to six months’ imprisonment, the latter to four. Lamenting the absence of racing at Cheltenham in that year, the Cheltenham Journal newspaper reported on the Tewkesbury Races, “… the Ham displayed a goodly assemblage of company; there were noble lords, gallant knights, ladies gay, and ladies quite the reverse …” [21]  

Also in 1843 a small steam locomotive was allowed to haul passengers to and from the town. One of these trains, driven by the company's locomotive superintendent, failed to stop at Tewkesbury station, crossed the High Street and went down the Quay branch, fortunately just coming under control as it was about to plunge into the river.[22]  

In 1844 it was reported that, “The ‘swell mob’ attended in strong force, as usual, but obtained only a small booty.” A farmer from Eldersfield had his pocket picked of 27/- (£1.35p),[23]  and a retired tradesman was robbed of a silver watch. Eliza Whitehead, having been found guilty of stealing twenty shillings (£1) from Richard Clarke, was sentenced to be transported for seven years. John Sweet, convicted of stealing a coat, was sentenced to eight months’ imprisonment. Other cases, which came before the Magistrates following the races included a variety of charges. One of passing counterfeit coin, two for felonies, one for being a rogue and vagabond, and three for assaulting the police.

In 1844 the deaths of three individuals occurred at the same time as the races. Two drowned in the Severn during race week. One was a youth named Gardener, a native of Nottingham, drowned near the Avon’s Mouth. The second, a local tailor named Woodward, drowned while bathing near the Upper Load. The third death was of a Henry Oldridge aged 21, he was found dead in his room at Twyning following a day at the races. There was an accident at Coombe Hill: the shaft of a gig broke and one of the passengers travelling from the races received serious injuries from a kick by the horse.

'Turfites'

Lord George Bentinck
Lord George Bentinck

Among lists of winning trainers at Tewkesbury Races the name of John Day often appears. John Day, who was nicknamed 'Honest John', looked like a serious clergyman, disapproved of smoking and always carried a black cotton umbrella. Prior to being a trainer he was a successful jockey; his granddaughter Kate was the great-grandmother of the jockey Lester Piggott. John Day is recorded as the owner of winners at Tewkesbury Races, but in fact it is more likely that the true owner was Lord George Bentinck. In around 1835 John Day became the trainer for Bentinck and together they bred and trained the most successful racehorses in the country. However, they did eventually fall out and part company.

Lord George was born in 1802 the 2nd son of the Duke of Portland. The Duke was a successful racehorse owner himself but he never gambled. This was in contrast to his son whose wagers staggered the gamblers of his time. In 1826 he lost £30,000 backing horses for the St. Ledger classic race (possibly £2,000,000 in modern values). Not surprisingly his father very much disapproved of his gambling. This led to Lord George adopting various aliases when on the racecourse: at various times his horses were run in the names of Mr. John Bowe (a publican), Mr. King, the Duke of Richmond, but often in the name of John Day. Most of these names, including that of Bentinck himself, appear as winners in reports of Tewkesbury Races.

Bentinck was considered a handsome dandy of his time. He was over six feet tall, dressed in the height of fashion, and wore a new satin scarf of cream colour every day at a cost of 5/-. A frock coat and a tall beaver hat completed his costume, although his racecourse attire consisted of a green coat, top boots and buckskin breeches.

Bentinck was the first owner to use a horsebox to transport a racehorse. Normal practice was to walk racehorses to meetings which of course could take many days. In 1836 Bentinck sent his horse Elis in secret from his training base in Goodwood to the racecourse at Doncaster to run in the St. Ledger. The journey took three days but the horse arrived fresh for the race and won easily at long odds. Bentinck won £61,000 in bets on the race (maybe £4,000,000 in modern values).
Bentinck used his influence to try to stamp out fraud in racing which was fairly widespread at the time. He accused Squire Osbaldeston of hiding the true form of his racehorse Rush and thus falsely obtaining a false handicap for the horse. Rush duly won a race in which Bentinck lost money in laying bets on the racehorse. Bentinck’s refusal to pay led to the squire challenging him to a duel. The men met at Wormwood Scrubs and the weapons were pistols. Bentinck fired (presumably deliberately) into the air. The squire, a crackshot, took careful aim and deliberately fired a shot through Bentinck’s hat. Subsequently they became good friends.

Although he spent most of his time on racing, Bentinck had become M.P. for King’s Lynn in 1828. He then sat in Parliament for 18 years without speaking once. Then suddenly in 1846 he became heavily involved in launching attacks on Sir Robert Peel and the Free Traders and became a close friend and ally of Disraeli. His new intense involvement in politics led him to dispose of his racehorses. He sold his stable of 208 thoroughbreds for the very cheap price of £10,000. His biggest unfulfilled ambition in racing had been to own a Derby winner. It is ironic that following the sale of his horses, one of them, Surplice, won it in 1848. However, his disappointment must have been reduced by his winning £11,000 in bets on the race.

Lord George Bentinck died in 1848 aged 46, he was found dead on a footpath near his home. There are conspiracy theories that he was poisoned by a Dr. Palmer; a gambler who was hanged in 1856 for poisoning men that he had gambling debts with. Another story is that he and his brother, the Marquis of Titchfield, fought over a Miss Berkeley and a blow to Bentinck’s chest killed him. However, the widely accepted view is that Lord George Bentinck died of a heart attack.

Opposition

Rev. Francis Close
Rev. Francis Close

It may well be that the discontinuation of Tewkesbury races was a consequence of horseracing being introduced at Cheltenham. The first races there took place in 1815 on Nottingham Hill above Bishop’s Cleeve. Three years later the first meeting on Cleeve Hill occurred, and in 1819 the first Gold Cup was run. It was a flat race for three year olds and upwards with a prize of 100 guineas: it was won by Mr. Bodenham’s Spectre. Cheltenham races did not move to the present Prestbury site until the end of the 19th century. 

There was substantial opposition to horseracing in the area. A focus of such opposition was around the Rev. Francis Close of Cheltenham,[24]  nicknamed The Pope of Cheltenham. On 17 June 1827, in St. Mary’s Church Cheltenham, he preached a sermon entitled The Evil Consequences of the Race Course which was subsequently published. Among the Rev. Close’s views expressed in the sermon were: 

I believe that there are periods of the day and night, yea even of the Sabbath day, when the heathen festivals of Venus and Bacchus are exceeded upon a Christian race ground …. numbers of the most worthless members of society flow in from every part of the country to partake in the unholy revelry, and to increase the amount of crime and guilt which is chargeable upon us. And it is scarce possible to turn our steps in any direction without hearing the voice of the blasphemer, or meeting the reeling drunkard, or witnessing scenes of the lowest profligacy. …. Gambling is the very essence of the amusement; though it be a vice which is more pre-eminently destructive both of body and soul than any other that Satan ever devised for the ruin of mankind.[25] 

These charges did not go unchallenged and the editor of the Gloucester and Cheltenham Herald published a reply: 

Such is the frightful catalogue of crimes that you are reckless enough to enumerate against a very large portion of the public by whom Races are frequented, at a time too when your Sovereign has stood forth to give them his sanction.…Picture the groups of fair, innocent, and happy females, borne in their gay equipages along the brow of Cleeve-hill, and say to what extent the ‘bloom of virtue’ has been violated by that excursion.[26]  

Francis Close was Rector of Cheltenham from 1826-1856 and judging by the number of activities that he tried to close down we could describe his reign as the ‘close season’. As well as racing, other activities that he disapproved of were: the theatre – he campaigned against the rebuilding of Cheltenham’s theatre after it was destroyed by fire in 1839; The Three Choirs’ Festival – which he said represented a 'perversion of God’s house'; the use of trains on Sundays. He was also instrumental in getting an early socialist, George Holyoake, imprisoned for blasphemy for daring to state during a public speech that he was an atheist.

Opposition to the races at Cheltenham reached a climax in 1829 when Rev. Close led protest demonstrations at the course where rocks and bottles were thrown at the horses and riders. In the following year the grandstand on the course was burnt down by arsonists, thought (though never proved) to be supporters of Rev. Close. This event ended racing at Cheltenham for fifteen years until it resumed in 1845. In the same year, Rev. Close was made life trustee of Trinity Church, Tewkesbury; no doubt his views concerning the races had support in the town.

A year later in 1844 a pamphlet was issued in Tewkesbury attacking the races; its introduction reads: “Tewkesbury Races – And Their Fruits – A few Facts and Reflections for the consideration of those who have sanctioned or supported these scenes of vice and ungodliness.” The pamphlet goes on to state that,

The Town was disgraced by scenes of the most defiling and degrading description: Riot and Debauchery; Drunkenness, Fornication and Lewedness; Quarrelling and Fighting; Cursing, Swearing and Filthy Talking were the painful and too evident fruits of the RACES! …. Hundreds of prostitutes, and hundreds more of the most infamous characters – swindlers and sharpers, thieves and pick-pockets – were let loose upon the population to pollute and plunder them! [27]

Listed in the pamphlet are the cases which came before the Magistrates following the races, along with details of the deaths previously described in this article. Unfortunate as these incidents were, accidents in gigs and drowning in the Severn were not rare occurrences regardless of races taking place. Bennett’s report of the 1844 meeting [28]  gives perhaps a more balanced picture and in fact he states that no gambling was allowed. However, he may have been referring to peripheral gambling, such as cards and roulette, rather than the betting on the horseracing. 
1844 anti-racing pamphlet
1844 anti-racing pamphletClick Image
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A year later in 1844 a pamphlet was issued in Tewkesbury attacking the races; its introduction reads: “Tewkesbury Races – And Their Fruits – A few Facts and Reflections for the consideration of those who have sanctioned or supported these scenes of vice and ungodliness.” The pamphlet goes on to state that,

The Town was disgraced by scenes of the most defiling and degrading description: Riot and Debauchery; Drunkenness, Fornication and Lewedness; Quarrelling and Fighting; Cursing, Swearing and Filthy Talking were the painful and too evident fruits of the RACES! …. Hundreds of prostitutes, and hundreds more of the most infamous characters – swindlers and sharpers, thieves and pick-pockets – were let loose upon the population to pollute and plunder them! [27]

Listed in the pamphlet are the cases which came before the Magistrates following the races, along with details of the deaths previously described in this article. Unfortunate as these incidents were, accidents in gigs and drowning in the Severn were not rare occurrences regardless of races taking place. Bennett’s report of the 1844 meeting [28]  gives perhaps a more balanced picture and in fact he states that no gambling was allowed. However, he may have been referring to peripheral gambling, such as cards and roulette, rather than the betting on the horseracing. 

Demise of Tewkesbury Races

1881 petition to restore racing
1881 petition to restore racingClick Image
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Bennett also comments on the meetings held in 1847 and 1848. However, the lack of further accounts, and the absence of newspaper reports in following years, indicates that during the 1850s horseracing at both Tewkesbury and Cheltenham died out, or at least reduced considerably in importance.

An effort was made in 1870 to revive racing at Tewkesbury. The Ham Trustees, consisting of Messrs. F. Thomas, Spurrier, Osborne, Boughton, Smart, Jenner, Garrison and Prosser, and the Mayor, gave consideration to a letter received from Mr. Holman of Cheltenham. It asked for the consent of the trustees to the holding of two days’ races on the Ham at the end of October. However, their decision was negative and a resolution was passed stating, “That it is inexpedient to sanction the holding of horse races on the Severn Ham at the present time.” [29] 

A final unsuccessful attempt to resurrect the event was made in the late 1880s. A petition was presented to The Trustees of the Tewkesbury Commons asking that restrictions in the letting of the Ham should be lifted and that the Ham be made available to public competition for its use. The document asserted that, “… prohibiting the use of the Ham for Race Meetings is detrimental to the interests of the persons entitled to the proceeds of such letting and to the interests of the trade of the town generally”. The petition, signed by 'The Burgesses and Ratepayers of the Borough of Tewkesbury', has around 150 signatures; among them those of William Allard, surgeon and J.P., Arthur Dowdeswell, J.P., and many of the shopkeepers of Tewkesbury.[30]

Meanwhile jump racing was developing ‘in fits and starts’ around Cheltenham. There was steeple chasing at Prestbury in 1847 but a cessation came in 1853 when Prestbury Park was sold to an owner opposed to racing. For some years there were steeplechases at various local locations such as Bibury and Andoversford. There was jump racing at Kayte Farm in Southam until a grandstand collapsed in 1866 injuring many people. After this racing appears to have ceased in the area.

However, in 1881 Mr. W. Baring Bingham purchased Prestbury Park and announced his intention to revive the races there. He erected rails around the course, built a grandstand, and in 1898 held a race meeting there. Four years later, in 1902, the meeting that now dominates the jumping calendar was inaugurated on the current site in front of a large crowd. In 1924, the first Gold Cup Steeplechase was run, won by Red Splash. The rest is – of course – history.[31]

References

1  James Bennett, The History of Tewkesbury, (1830).
2  £52.50 – worth about £4,100 in modern values.
Geast Charity Book, GRO: D2688, The History and Antiquities of Tewkesbury, (1798).
Tewkesbury Register, 22 Feb 1890.
5 No.1468. The Weekly Worcester Journal is the oldest weekly newspaper in Great Britain, having    been first issued in 1690.
6Worth around £563 in modern values.
7 Gloucestershire Archives, SP30.
8 Gloucester Journal, 31 Aug 1795.
9Times, 25 September 1805.
10 James Bennett, The History of Tewkesbury, (1830).
11 James Bennett, Tewkesbury Yearly Register and Magazine for 1841.
12 10/- = 50p, 7/6d = 38p, 1/- = 5p, 6d. = 2 ½ p. £1 was worth c. £43 in modern values.  
13 James Bennett, Tewkesbury Yearly Register and Magazine for 1843.
14 James Bennett, Tewkesbury Yearly Register and Magazine for 1844.
15 Fashionable – the latest mode.
16 A sharper (swindler).
17 Times, 5 Sep 1793. 
18 Times, 28 Sep 1805; Gloucester Journal, 30 Sep 1805.
19 Ancestry, Criminal Registers 1791-1892.
20 Worcester Journal, 28 Nov 1811.
21 Cheltenham Journal, 24 Jul 1843.
22 Colin C. Maggs, Branch Lines of Gloucestershire, (Sutton Publishing, 1991).
23 Worth about £62 in modern values.
24 Francis Close (1797-1882) later Dean of Carlisle (Dean Close School in Cheltenham is named after him).
25 Cheltenham Library, 63G 798.4.
26 as above.
27 Courtesy of Wendy Snarey.
28 James Bennett, Tewkesbury Yearly Register and Magazine for 1844.
29 Tewkesbury Register, 10 Sep 1870.
30 Gloucestershire Archives TBR A 17/7.
31Peter Gill, Cheltenham Races, (Sutton, 1997).
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